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Tunisian (also known as Afghan) Crochet seems to be enjoying a resurgence. The best way to describe it is to say that it is a cross between crocheting and knitting. You still use just one hook, but it is as long as a knitting needle, and you pull up and keep loops on the hook for one row, then, without turning, you pull yarn through two loops at a time, similar to casting off.
This technique tends to produce a "fabric" that resembles weaving and that is thick and sturdy, though there are tunisian stitches that are more lacy. In some ways, it's an easier craft for beginners to learn because it's easier to see where the loops and stitches are and the movements required are very repetitive.
Although I will try to post some tips on Tunisian Crochet here, there are good and comprehensive articles and patterns in the Winter 2009 issue of Interweave Crochet magazine.
Oh, and there does not seem to be any connection to Tunisia!